The Janus Face of Commercial Open Source Software Communities
An Investigation into Institutional (Non)work by Interacting Institutional Actor
Fifteen years ago software was primarily developed either within an organizational field of voluntary open source software communities or within an organizational field of commercial companies. Within the organizational field of open source software, participants looked upon themselves as programmers and users modifying and sharing codes, making them available to everyone for free. Within the field of commercial companies, managers and employees perceived software as a commodity that could be bought and sold, and the development of the software was wrapped in copyrights and licenses. Today, commercial companies are involved in activities within open source software communities in many different ways.
How did people start to co-operate with the enemy on software development is the leading question in the book. The answers are based on in-depth studies of three empirical cases showing different variations of successful co-operation. In all three cases the development has raised serious identity questions like: Who am I? Who are my friends and enemies? And what is the right thing for me to do in the future?
The book is for everyone interested in software development and/or open innovation processes and will be of particular interest for organizational scholars as it draws heavily on sociological concepts like institutional logics, institutional work and institutional actors.
1. Introduction 11
1.1 A sociological approach 14
1.2 The structure of the book 15
2. Companies Involvement in Open Source Software Communities 19
2.1 Historical development of software 19
2.2 Literature on companies involvement in open source software communities 23
2.3 Commercialization of open source software in Denmark 31
2.4 Conclusion and reflection 48
3. TYPO3 A Commercial Open Source Software Community 53
3.1 Introduction 53
3.2 TYPO3 as an à la carte community 57
3.3 TYPO3 as a Community of Commercial Actors 75
3.4 Institutional Work in the development of the TYPO3 Community 86
3.5 Institutional non-work in the development of the TYPO3 Community 99
3.6 Conclusion and reflection on the Janus Face of the TYPO3 Community 119
4. Nokia s Involvement in Two Types of Open Source Software Communities 123
4.1 The background and Nokia s open source software strategy 123
4.2 The Maemo.org case: Nokia sponsoring a dependent open source software community 127
4.3 The GNOME case: Nokia s involvement in an upstream open source software project 131
4.5 Conclusions and reflection on the Janus face of Nokia s involvement in Open Source Software Communities 139
5. Conclusion and Reflection 145
5.1 Companies involvement in open source software communities 145
5.2 Theoretical discussions within institutional organizational theory 152
5.3 The Janus face of commercial open source software communities 172
Appendix Methods 177
List of Concepts 185
List of References 187
About the Contributors 201
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